Maximilien Chaudoir, or Maximilien, baron de Chaudoir, was a Russian entomologist. He was a specialist in Coleoptera and in particular the Carabidae. His Cicindelidae are conserved by the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle in Paris. His Carabidae were acquired by Charles Oberthür (1845-1924), then given to the same museum. He wrote Mémoire sur la famille des Carabiques, 6 volumes commencing 1848.