The Słonim Ghetto was a Jewish World War II ghetto established in 1941 by the Schutzstaffel (SS) in the prewar Polish city of Słonim located in the eastern region of Kresy, occupied by Germany after the launch of Operation Barbarossa. Before the joint Nazi-Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939 Słonim was a seat of the Słonim county in the Nowogródek Voivodeship of the Second Polish Republic. The invading Soviets annexed the city along with the entire region to the Byelorussian SSR in an atmosphere of terror, and renamed it as Сло́ним (Slonim). All inhabitants including Jews born in sovereign Poland were declared Soviet subjects by the NKVD. Less than two years later the city was captured by the Wehrmacht. The killings of Polish Jews by mobile extermination squads began almost immediately.