Liu Jiao was a younger brother of Emperor Gaozu of Han. In early life, he studied at Qin capital as a scholar, and left after the Burning of books and burying of scholars event. After Han Xin lost his title in 201 BC, Emperor Gaozu divided the existing Chu territory into Chu and Jing. Among the four brothers of Emperor Gaozu, Jiao was most trusted, he was made Prince Yuan of Chu, while a clan member Liu Jia was made Prince of Jing. In 178 BC, Jiao died and his second son, Liu Yingke succeeded the Prince of Chu title. Jiao's grandson, Liu Wu was one of the rebel prince in the Rebellion of the Seven States.